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Reading well is work that is hard requires great skill and training.

Reading well is work that is hard requires great skill and training.

Both in the summary and the paraphrase we have quoted Curtis’s “clustering together in a dense ball,” a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to spell it out this clustering in almost any language except that Curtis’s would be pointless since her description is admirably precise.

Quoting Authoritative Language

You shall also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting a professional or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you raise your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to determine background information in a paper, along with your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you’ve made, as well as your statement gets to be more credible to your readers. As an example, in an essay you could possibly write in the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau’s Walden:

It “is a exercise that is noble” writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, “and another that may task your reader significantly more than any exercise that your customs for the day esteem. A training is required by it like the athletes underwent. Books needs to be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.”

By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist about them of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not just can you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, certainly one of our most influential thinkers that are american. The quotation has elevated the level of your projects.

You are able to quote to advantage well-respected figures who’ve written or spoken in regards to the subject of your paper. The following is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler relates to a physicist and an astronaut:

a couple of scientists – notably James Van Allen, discoverer associated with the Earth’s radiation belts – have decried the expense for the space that is manned and called for an almost exclusive attention to unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be a lot more cost-effective.

Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, “It seems to be argued any particular one takes from the other. But before there was a space that is manned, the funding on space science was zero. Now it really is about $500 million a year.”

Note, first, that within the paragraph that is first has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks produced by James Van Allen in to the discussion on space flight. Within the paragraph that is second Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, both for James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all:

James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth’s radiation belts .
Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle astronaut that is former .

The phrases in italics are called appositives. Their function is always to rename the nouns they follow by giving explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that may be expressed in the following sentence pattern may be changed to an phrase that is appositive

James Van Allen is the discoverer regarding the Earth’s radiation belts.

James Van Allen has decried the cost associated with the space program that is manned

James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth’s radiation belts, has decried the expense for the manned space program.

Use appositives to identify authors that you quote.

Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences

Quoting just the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
As you’ve seen, a writer selects passages for quotation which can be especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Guess that while conducting research on the subject of college sports you’ve run into the following, authored by Robert Hutchins, former president regarding the University of Chicago:

If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni while the public, it is a whole lot worse for the universites and colleges themselves. They would like to be educational institutions, nonetheless they can’t. The story regarding the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was which he had not learned to read through and write is probably exaggerated. But we should admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, “friends,” presidents and even professors has tended to relax standards that are academic. These gentry often disregard the proven fact that a college shouldn’t be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing while the double educational standard cannot exist without having the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, for the universities and colleges themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted if you are paying them for serving as “faculty representatives” in the college athletic boards. 4

Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion. You may want to quote part of the following sentence:

These gentry often forget the known undeniable fact that a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.

Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of your sentence that is own once’ve selected the passage you want to quote, work the materials into the paper in as natural and fluid a manner as possible. Here is how we would quote Hutchins:

Robert Hutchins, a president that is former of University of Chicago, asserts that “a college really should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.”

Remember that we’ve used an appositive to spot Hutchins. And now we’ve used just the part of the paragraph – a single clause – that we thought memorable adequate to quote directly.

Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
A quoted sentence should not the stand by position itself – such as the following example:

Various people linked to the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. “These gentry often disregard the undeniable fact that a college should not be thinking about a fullback who is a half-wit.” But this type or kind of thinking is harmful to the university and even worse when it comes to athletes.

Even if you include a parenthetical citation following the quotation, you shouldn’t leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring towards the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the origin in a few other area of the sentence – beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you might write:

According to Robert Hutchins, “These gentry often overlook the undeniable fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit.”

“These gentry,” asserts Robert Hutchins, “often overlook the fact that a college should not be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.”

Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon:

But Robert Hutchins disagrees: “These gentry often overlook the known undeniable fact that a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit.”

Use colons and also to introduce indented quotations (as with the examples above).

When sources that are attributing try to vary the conventional “states,” “writes,” “says,” and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: “asserts,” “argues,” “maintains,” “insists,” “asks,” and even “wonders.”

Using Ellipsis Marks
Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you need to quote the start and end of a passage not its middle – as was the truth whenever we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here’s part of the paragraph in Walden from where we quoted a few sentences:

to learn well, this is certainly, to see true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and something which will task your reader a lot more than any exercise which the customs regarding the day esteem. It entails an exercise for instance the athletes underwent, the intention that essay writers is steady of the entire life for this object. Books needs to be read as deliberately and reservedly while they were written. 5

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